class ListAPIView

from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
    Concrete view for listing a queryset.
    

Attributes

  Defined in
allow_empty = True MultipleObjectMixin
allowed_methods = <property object at 0x1046c5fc8> APIView
authentication_classes = [<class 'rest_framework.authentication.SessionAuthentication'>, <class 'rest_framework.authentication.BasicAuthentication'>] APIView
content_negotiation_class = <class 'rest_framework.negotiation.DefaultContentNegotiation'> APIView
context_object_name = None MultipleObjectMixin
default_response_headers = <property object at 0x1046d5050> APIView
empty_error = Empty list and '%(class_name)s.allow_empty' is False. ListModelMixin
filter_backend = None GenericAPIView
http_method_names = [u'options', u'post', u'trace', u'delete', u'head', u'put', u'get', u'patch'] View
model = None MultipleObjectMixin
model = None GenericAPIView
model_serializer_class = <class 'rest_framework.serializers.ModelSerializer'> GenericAPIView
ordering = None MultipleObjectMixin
page_kwarg = page MultipleObjectMixin
paginate_by = None MultipleObjectAPIView
paginate_by = None MultipleObjectMixin
paginate_by_param = None MultipleObjectAPIView
paginate_orphans = 0 MultipleObjectMixin
pagination_serializer_class = <class 'rest_framework.pagination.PaginationSerializer'> MultipleObjectAPIView
paginator_class = <class 'django.core.paginator.Paginator'> MultipleObjectMixin
parser_classes = [<class 'rest_framework.parsers.JSONParser'>, <class 'rest_framework.parsers.FormParser'>, <class 'rest_framework.parsers.MultiPartParser'>] APIView
permission_classes = [<class 'rest_framework.permissions.AllowAny'>] APIView
queryset = None MultipleObjectMixin
renderer_classes = [<class 'rest_framework.renderers.JSONRenderer'>, <class 'rest_framework.renderers.BrowsableAPIRenderer'>] APIView
serializer_class = None GenericAPIView
settings = <rest_framework.settings.APISettings object at 0x10420ac90> APIView
throttle_classes = () APIView
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Methods

def _allowed_methods(self): View

    def _allowed_methods(self):
        return [m.upper() for m in self.http_method_names if hasattr(self, m)]

def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):

APIView

        Override the default :meth:`as_view` to store an instance of the view
        as an attribute on the callable function.  This allows us to discover
        information about the view when we do URL reverse lookups.
        
    @classmethod
    def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):
        """
        Override the default :meth:`as_view` to store an instance of the view
        as an attribute on the callable function.  This allows us to discover
        information about the view when we do URL reverse lookups.
        """
        # TODO: deprecate?
        view = super(APIView, cls).as_view(**initkwargs)
        view.cls_instance = cls(**initkwargs)
        return view

View

        Main entry point for a request-response process.
        
    @classonlymethod
    def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):
        """
        Main entry point for a request-response process.
        """
        for key in initkwargs:
            if key in cls.http_method_names:
                raise TypeError("You tried to pass in the %s method name as a "
                                "keyword argument to %s(). Don't do that."
                                % (key, cls.__name__))
            if not hasattr(cls, key):
                raise TypeError("%s() received an invalid keyword %r. as_view "
                                "only accepts arguments that are already "
                                "attributes of the class." % (cls.__name__, key))

        def view(request, *args, **kwargs):
            self = cls(**initkwargs)
            if hasattr(self, 'get') and not hasattr(self, 'head'):
                self.head = self.get
            self.request = request
            self.args = args
            self.kwargs = kwargs
            return self.dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)

        # take name and docstring from class
        update_wrapper(view, cls, updated=())

        # and possible attributes set by decorators
        # like csrf_exempt from dispatch
        update_wrapper(view, cls.dispatch, assigned=())
        return view

def check_object_permissions(self, request, obj): APIView

        Check if the request should be permitted for a given object.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is not permitted.
        
    def check_object_permissions(self, request, obj):
        """
        Check if the request should be permitted for a given object.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is not permitted.
        """
        for permission in self.get_permissions():
            if not permission.has_object_permission(request, self, obj):
                self.permission_denied(request)

def check_permissions(self, request): APIView

        Check if the request should be permitted.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is not permitted.
        
    def check_permissions(self, request):
        """
        Check if the request should be permitted.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is not permitted.
        """
        for permission in self.get_permissions():
            if not permission.has_permission(request, self):
                self.permission_denied(request)

def check_throttles(self, request): APIView

        Check if request should be throttled.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is throttled.
        
    def check_throttles(self, request):
        """
        Check if request should be throttled.
        Raises an appropriate exception if the request is throttled.
        """
        for throttle in self.get_throttles():
            if not throttle.allow_request(request, self):
                self.throttled(request, throttle.wait())

def dispatch(*args, **kwargs):

APIView

        `.dispatch()` is pretty much the same as Django's regular dispatch,
        but with extra hooks for startup, finalize, and exception handling.
        
    def wrapped_view(*args, **kwargs):
        return view_func(*args, **kwargs)

View

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # Try to dispatch to the right method; if a method doesn't exist,
        # defer to the error handler. Also defer to the error handler if the
        # request method isn't on the approved list.
        if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
            handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(), self.http_method_not_allowed)
        else:
            handler = self.http_method_not_allowed
        return handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

def filter_queryset(self, queryset): GenericAPIView

        Given a queryset, filter it with whichever filter backend is in use.
        
    def filter_queryset(self, queryset):
        """
        Given a queryset, filter it with whichever filter backend is in use.
        """
        if not self.filter_backend:
            return queryset
        backend = self.filter_backend()
        return backend.filter_queryset(self.request, queryset, self)

def finalize_response(self, request, response, *args, **kwargs): APIView

        Returns the final response object.
        
    def finalize_response(self, request, response, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Returns the final response object.
        """
        # Make the error obvious if a proper response is not returned
        assert isinstance(response, HttpResponse), (
            'Expected a `Response` to be returned from the view, '
            'but received a `%s`' % type(response)
        )

        if isinstance(response, Response):
            if not getattr(request, 'accepted_renderer', None):
                neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request, force=True)
                request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

            response.accepted_renderer = request.accepted_renderer
            response.accepted_media_type = request.accepted_media_type
            response.renderer_context = self.get_renderer_context()

        for key, value in self.headers.items():
            response[key] = value

        return response

def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs): ListAPIView

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return self.list(request, *args, **kwargs)

def get_allow_empty(self): MultipleObjectMixin

        Returns ``True`` if the view should display empty lists, and ``False``
        if a 404 should be raised instead.
        
    def get_allow_empty(self):
        """
        Returns ``True`` if the view should display empty lists, and ``False``
        if a 404 should be raised instead.
        """
        return self.allow_empty

def get_authenticate_header(self, request): APIView

        If a request is unauthenticated, determine the WWW-Authenticate
        header to use for 401 responses, if any.
        
    def get_authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        If a request is unauthenticated, determine the WWW-Authenticate
        header to use for 401 responses, if any.
        """
        authenticators = self.get_authenticators()
        if authenticators:
            return authenticators[0].authenticate_header(request)

def get_authenticators(self): APIView

        Instantiates and returns the list of authenticators that this view can use.
        
    def get_authenticators(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of authenticators that this view can use.
        """
        return [auth() for auth in self.authentication_classes]

def get_content_negotiator(self): APIView

        Instantiate and return the content negotiation class to use.
        
    def get_content_negotiator(self):
        """
        Instantiate and return the content negotiation class to use.
        """
        if not getattr(self, '_negotiator', None):
            self._negotiator = self.content_negotiation_class()
        return self._negotiator

def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):

MultipleObjectMixin

        Get the context for this view.
        
    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Get the context for this view.
        """
        queryset = kwargs.pop('object_list', self.object_list)
        page_size = self.get_paginate_by(queryset)
        context_object_name = self.get_context_object_name(queryset)
        if page_size:
            paginator, page, queryset, is_paginated = self.paginate_queryset(queryset, page_size)
            context = {
                'paginator': paginator,
                'page_obj': page,
                'is_paginated': is_paginated,
                'object_list': queryset
            }
        else:
            context = {
                'paginator': None,
                'page_obj': None,
                'is_paginated': False,
                'object_list': queryset
            }
        if context_object_name is not None:
            context[context_object_name] = queryset
        context.update(kwargs)
        return super(MultipleObjectMixin, self).get_context_data(**context)

ContextMixin

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        if 'view' not in kwargs:
            kwargs['view'] = self
        return kwargs

def get_context_object_name(self, object_list): MultipleObjectMixin

        Get the name of the item to be used in the context.
        
    def get_context_object_name(self, object_list):
        """
        Get the name of the item to be used in the context.
        """
        if self.context_object_name:
            return self.context_object_name
        elif hasattr(object_list, 'model'):
            return '%s_list' % object_list.model._meta.model_name
        else:
            return None

def get_description(self, html=False): APIView

        Return the resource or view docstring for use as this view's description.
        Override to customize.
        
    def get_description(self, html=False):
        """
        Return the resource or view docstring for use as this view's description.
        Override to customize.
        """
        # TODO: deprecate?
        description = self.__doc__ or ''
        description = _remove_leading_indent(description)
        if html:
            return self.markup_description(description)
        return description

def get_format_suffix(self, **kwargs): APIView

        Determine if the request includes a '.json' style format suffix
        
    def get_format_suffix(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Determine if the request includes a '.json' style format suffix
        """
        if self.settings.FORMAT_SUFFIX_KWARG:
            return kwargs.get(self.settings.FORMAT_SUFFIX_KWARG)

def get_name(self): APIView

        Return the resource or view class name for use as this view's name.
        Override to customize.
        
    def get_name(self):
        """
        Return the resource or view class name for use as this view's name.
        Override to customize.
        """
        # TODO: deprecate?
        name = self.__class__.__name__
        name = _remove_trailing_string(name, 'View')
        return _camelcase_to_spaces(name)

def get_ordering(self): MultipleObjectMixin

        Return the field or fields to use for ordering the queryset.
        
    def get_ordering(self):
        """
        Return the field or fields to use for ordering the queryset.
        """
        return self.ordering

def get_paginate_by(self, queryset):

MultipleObjectAPIView

        Return the size of pages to use with pagination.
        
    def get_paginate_by(self, queryset):
        """
        Return the size of pages to use with pagination.
        """
        if self.paginate_by_param:
            query_params = self.request.QUERY_PARAMS
            try:
                return int(query_params[self.paginate_by_param])
            except (KeyError, ValueError):
                pass
        return self.paginate_by

MultipleObjectMixin

        Get the number of items to paginate by, or ``None`` for no pagination.
        
    def get_paginate_by(self, queryset):
        """
        Get the number of items to paginate by, or ``None`` for no pagination.
        """
        return self.paginate_by

def get_paginate_orphans(self): MultipleObjectMixin

        Returns the maximum number of orphans extend the last page by when
        paginating.
        
    def get_paginate_orphans(self):
        """
        Returns the maximum number of orphans extend the last page by when
        paginating.
        """
        return self.paginate_orphans

def get_pagination_serializer(self, page=None): MultipleObjectAPIView

        Return a serializer instance to use with paginated data.
        
    def get_pagination_serializer(self, page=None):
        """
        Return a serializer instance to use with paginated data.
        """
        class SerializerClass(self.pagination_serializer_class):
            class Meta:
                object_serializer_class = self.get_serializer_class()

        pagination_serializer_class = SerializerClass
        context = self.get_serializer_context()
        return pagination_serializer_class(instance=page, context=context)

def get_paginator(self, queryset, per_page, orphans=0, allow_empty_first_page=True, **kwargs): MultipleObjectMixin

        Return an instance of the paginator for this view.
        
    def get_paginator(self, queryset, per_page, orphans=0,
                      allow_empty_first_page=True, **kwargs):
        """
        Return an instance of the paginator for this view.
        """
        return self.paginator_class(
            queryset, per_page, orphans=orphans,
            allow_empty_first_page=allow_empty_first_page, **kwargs)

def get_parser_context(self, http_request): APIView

        Returns a dict that is passed through to Parser.parse(),
        as the `parser_context` keyword argument.
        
    def get_parser_context(self, http_request):
        """
        Returns a dict that is passed through to Parser.parse(),
        as the `parser_context` keyword argument.
        """
        # Note: Additionally `request` will also be added to the context
        #       by the Request object.
        return {
            'view': self,
            'args': getattr(self, 'args', ()),
            'kwargs': getattr(self, 'kwargs', {})
        }

def get_parsers(self): APIView

        Instantiates and returns the list of parsers that this view can use.
        
    def get_parsers(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of parsers that this view can use.
        """
        return [parser() for parser in self.parser_classes]

def get_permissions(self): APIView

        Instantiates and returns the list of permissions that this view requires.
        
    def get_permissions(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of permissions that this view requires.
        """
        return [permission() for permission in self.permission_classes]

def get_queryset(self): MultipleObjectMixin

        Return the list of items for this view.

        The return value must be an iterable and may be an instance of
        `QuerySet` in which case `QuerySet` specific behavior will be enabled.
        
    def get_queryset(self):
        """
        Return the list of items for this view.

        The return value must be an iterable and may be an instance of
        `QuerySet` in which case `QuerySet` specific behavior will be enabled.
        """
        if self.queryset is not None:
            queryset = self.queryset
            if isinstance(queryset, QuerySet):
                queryset = queryset.all()
        elif self.model is not None:
            queryset = self.model._default_manager.all()
        else:
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "%(cls)s is missing a QuerySet. Define "
                "%(cls)s.model, %(cls)s.queryset, or override "
                "%(cls)s.get_queryset()." % {
                    'cls': self.__class__.__name__
                }
            )
        ordering = self.get_ordering()
        if ordering:
            if isinstance(ordering, six.string_types):
                ordering = (ordering,)
            queryset = queryset.order_by(*ordering)

        return queryset

def get_renderer_context(self): APIView

        Returns a dict that is passed through to Renderer.render(),
        as the `renderer_context` keyword argument.
        
    def get_renderer_context(self):
        """
        Returns a dict that is passed through to Renderer.render(),
        as the `renderer_context` keyword argument.
        """
        # Note: Additionally 'response' will also be added to the context,
        #       by the Response object.
        return {
            'view': self,
            'args': getattr(self, 'args', ()),
            'kwargs': getattr(self, 'kwargs', {}),
            'request': getattr(self, 'request', None)
        }

def get_renderers(self): APIView

        Instantiates and returns the list of renderers that this view can use.
        
    def get_renderers(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of renderers that this view can use.
        """
        return [renderer() for renderer in self.renderer_classes]

def get_serializer(self, instance=None, data=None, files=None, many=False, partial=False): GenericAPIView

        Return the serializer instance that should be used for validating and
        deserializing input, and for serializing output.
        
    def get_serializer(self, instance=None, data=None,
                       files=None, many=False, partial=False):
        """
        Return the serializer instance that should be used for validating and
        deserializing input, and for serializing output.
        """
        serializer_class = self.get_serializer_class()
        context = self.get_serializer_context()
        return serializer_class(instance, data=data, files=files,
                                many=many, partial=partial, context=context)

def get_serializer_class(self): GenericAPIView

        Return the class to use for the serializer.

        Defaults to using `self.serializer_class`, falls back to constructing a
        model serializer class using `self.model_serializer_class`, with
        `self.model` as the model.
        
    def get_serializer_class(self):
        """
        Return the class to use for the serializer.

        Defaults to using `self.serializer_class`, falls back to constructing a
        model serializer class using `self.model_serializer_class`, with
        `self.model` as the model.
        """
        serializer_class = self.serializer_class

        if serializer_class is None:
            class DefaultSerializer(self.model_serializer_class):
                class Meta:
                    model = self.model
            serializer_class = DefaultSerializer

        return serializer_class

def get_serializer_context(self): GenericAPIView

        Extra context provided to the serializer class.
        
    def get_serializer_context(self):
        """
        Extra context provided to the serializer class.
        """
        return {
            'request': self.request,
            'format': self.format_kwarg,
            'view': self
        }

def get_throttles(self): APIView

        Instantiates and returns the list of throttles that this view uses.
        
    def get_throttles(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of throttles that this view uses.
        """
        return [throttle() for throttle in self.throttle_classes]

def handle_exception(self, exc): APIView

        Handle any exception that occurs, by returning an appropriate response,
        or re-raising the error.
        
    def handle_exception(self, exc):
        """
        Handle any exception that occurs, by returning an appropriate response,
        or re-raising the error.
        """
        if isinstance(exc, exceptions.Throttled):
            # Throttle wait header
            self.headers['X-Throttle-Wait-Seconds'] = '%d' % exc.wait

        if isinstance(exc, (exceptions.NotAuthenticated,
                            exceptions.AuthenticationFailed)):
            # WWW-Authenticate header for 401 responses, else coerce to 403
            auth_header = self.get_authenticate_header(self.request)

            if auth_header:
                self.headers['WWW-Authenticate'] = auth_header
            else:
                exc.status_code = status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN

        if isinstance(exc, exceptions.APIException):
            return Response({'detail': exc.detail},
                            status=exc.status_code,
                            exception=True)
        elif isinstance(exc, Http404):
            return Response({'detail': 'Not found'},
                            status=status.HTTP_404_NOT_FOUND,
                            exception=True)
        elif isinstance(exc, PermissionDenied):
            return Response({'detail': 'Permission denied'},
                            status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                            exception=True)
        raise

def http_method_not_allowed(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

APIView

        Called if `request.method` does not correspond to a handler method.
        
    def http_method_not_allowed(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Called if `request.method` does not correspond to a handler method.
        """
        raise exceptions.MethodNotAllowed(request.method)

View

    def http_method_not_allowed(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        logger.warning('Method Not Allowed (%s): %s', request.method, request.path,
            extra={
                'status_code': 405,
                'request': request
            }
        )
        return http.HttpResponseNotAllowed(self._allowed_methods())

def initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs): APIView

        Runs anything that needs to occur prior to calling the method handler.
        
    def initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Runs anything that needs to occur prior to calling the method handler.
        """
        self.format_kwarg = self.get_format_suffix(**kwargs)

        # Ensure that the incoming request is permitted
        self.perform_authentication(request)
        self.check_permissions(request)
        self.check_throttles(request)

        # Perform content negotiation and store the accepted info on the request
        neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request)
        request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

def initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kargs): APIView

        Returns the initial request object.
        
    def initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kargs):
        """
        Returns the initial request object.
        """
        parser_context = self.get_parser_context(request)

        return Request(request,
                       parsers=self.get_parsers(),
                       authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
                       negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
                       parser_context=parser_context)

def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs): ListModelMixin

    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        queryset = self.get_queryset()
        self.object_list = self.filter_queryset(queryset)

        # Default is to allow empty querysets.  This can be altered by setting
        # `.allow_empty = False`, to raise 404 errors on empty querysets.
        allow_empty = self.get_allow_empty()
        if not allow_empty and not self.object_list:
            class_name = self.__class__.__name__
            error_msg = self.empty_error % {'class_name': class_name}
            raise Http404(error_msg)

        # Pagination size is set by the `.paginate_by` attribute,
        # which may be `None` to disable pagination.
        page_size = self.get_paginate_by(self.object_list)
        if page_size:
            packed = self.paginate_queryset(self.object_list, page_size)
            paginator, page, queryset, is_paginated = packed
            serializer = self.get_pagination_serializer(page)
        else:
            serializer = self.get_serializer(self.object_list, many=True)

        return Response(serializer.data)

def markup_description(self, description): APIView

        Apply HTML markup to the description of this view.
        
    def markup_description(self, description):
        """
        Apply HTML markup to the description of this view.
        """
        # TODO: deprecate?
        if apply_markdown:
            description = apply_markdown(description)
        else:
            description = escape(description).replace('\n', '<br />')
        return mark_safe(description)

def metadata(self, request): APIView

    def metadata(self, request):
        return {
            'name': self.get_name(),
            'description': self.get_description(),
            'renders': [renderer.media_type for renderer in self.renderer_classes],
            'parses': [parser.media_type for parser in self.parser_classes],
        }

def options(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

APIView

        Handler method for HTTP 'OPTIONS' request.
        We may as well implement this as Django will otherwise provide
        a less useful default implementation.
        
    def options(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Handler method for HTTP 'OPTIONS' request.
        We may as well implement this as Django will otherwise provide
        a less useful default implementation.
        """
        return Response(self.metadata(request), status=status.HTTP_200_OK)

View

        Handles responding to requests for the OPTIONS HTTP verb.
        
    def options(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Handles responding to requests for the OPTIONS HTTP verb.
        """
        response = http.HttpResponse()
        response['Allow'] = ', '.join(self._allowed_methods())
        response['Content-Length'] = '0'
        return response

def paginate_queryset(self, queryset, page_size): MultipleObjectMixin

        Paginate the queryset, if needed.
        
    def paginate_queryset(self, queryset, page_size):
        """
        Paginate the queryset, if needed.
        """
        paginator = self.get_paginator(
            queryset, page_size, orphans=self.get_paginate_orphans(),
            allow_empty_first_page=self.get_allow_empty())
        page_kwarg = self.page_kwarg
        page = self.kwargs.get(page_kwarg) or self.request.GET.get(page_kwarg) or 1
        try:
            page_number = int(page)
        except ValueError:
            if page == 'last':
                page_number = paginator.num_pages
            else:
                raise Http404(_("Page is not 'last', nor can it be converted to an int."))
        try:
            page = paginator.page(page_number)
            return (paginator, page, page.object_list, page.has_other_pages())
        except InvalidPage as e:
            raise Http404(_('Invalid page (%(page_number)s): %(message)s') % {
                'page_number': page_number,
                'message': str(e)
            })

def perform_authentication(self, request): APIView

        Perform authentication on the incoming request.

        Note that if you override this and simply 'pass', then authentication
        will instead be performed lazily, the first time either
        `request.user` or `request.auth` is accessed.
        
    def perform_authentication(self, request):
        """
        Perform authentication on the incoming request.

        Note that if you override this and simply 'pass', then authentication
        will instead be performed lazily, the first time either
        `request.user` or `request.auth` is accessed.
        """
        request.user

def perform_content_negotiation(self, request, force=False): APIView

        Determine which renderer and media type to use render the response.
        
    def perform_content_negotiation(self, request, force=False):
        """
        Determine which renderer and media type to use render the response.
        """
        renderers = self.get_renderers()
        conneg = self.get_content_negotiator()

        try:
            return conneg.select_renderer(request, renderers, self.format_kwarg)
        except Exception:
            if force:
                return (renderers[0], renderers[0].media_type)
            raise

def permission_denied(self, request): APIView

        If request is not permitted, determine what kind of exception to raise.
        
    def permission_denied(self, request):
        """
        If request is not permitted, determine what kind of exception to raise.
        """
        if not self.request.successful_authenticator:
            raise exceptions.NotAuthenticated()
        raise exceptions.PermissionDenied()

def post_save(self, obj, created=False): GenericAPIView

        Placeholder method for calling after saving an object.
        
    def post_save(self, obj, created=False):
        """
        Placeholder method for calling after saving an object.
        """
        pass

def pre_save(self, obj): GenericAPIView

        Placeholder method for calling before saving an object.
        May be used eg. to set attributes on the object that are implicit
        in either the request, or the url.
        
    def pre_save(self, obj):
        """
        Placeholder method for calling before saving an object.
        May be used eg. to set attributes on the object that are implicit
        in either the request, or the url.
        """
        pass

def throttled(self, request, wait): APIView

        If request is throttled, determine what kind of exception to raise.
        
    def throttled(self, request, wait):
        """
        If request is throttled, determine what kind of exception to raise.
        """
        raise exceptions.Throttled(wait)