class ModelSerializer

from rest_framework.serializers import ModelSerializer
    A serializer that deals with model instances and querysets.
    

Attributes

  Defined in
Meta = <class 'rest_framework.serializers.Meta'> BaseSerializer
_dict_class = <class 'rest_framework.serializers.SortedDictWithMetadata'> BaseSerializer
_options_class = <class 'rest_framework.serializers.ModelSerializerOptions'> ModelSerializer
_options_class = <class 'rest_framework.serializers.SerializerOptions'> BaseSerializer
base_fields = {} ModelSerializer
base_fields = {} Serializer
creation_counter = 3 Field
data = <property object at 0x108d33680> BaseSerializer
default = None WritableField
default_error_messages = {u'invalid': <django.utils.functional.__proxy__ object at 0x108d229d0>, u'required': <django.utils.functional.__proxy__ object at 0x108d22990>} WritableField
default_validators = [] WritableField
empty = Field
errors = <property object at 0x108d33628> BaseSerializer
errors = <property object at 0x108d23470> Field
field_mapping = {<class 'django.db.models.fields.CharField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.CharField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.TextField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.CharField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.FloatField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.FloatField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.BooleanField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.BooleanField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.SmallIntegerField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.IntegerField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.files.ImageField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.ImageField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.CommaSeparatedIntegerField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.CharField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.NullBooleanField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.BooleanField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.SlugField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.SlugField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.DateTimeField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.DateTimeField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.IntegerField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.IntegerField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.PositiveSmallIntegerField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.IntegerField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.DateField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.DateField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.URLField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.URLField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.PositiveIntegerField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.IntegerField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.files.FileField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.FileField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.DecimalField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.DecimalField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.AutoField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.IntegerField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.TimeField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.TimeField'>, <class 'django.db.models.fields.EmailField'>: <class 'rest_framework.fields.EmailField'>} ModelSerializer
form_field_class = <class 'django.forms.fields.CharField'> Field
partial = False Field
read_only = True Field
type_label = field Field
type_name = None Field
use_files = False Field
widget = <class 'django.forms.widgets.TextInput'> WritableField
widget = None Field
write_only = False WritableField
Expand Collapse

Methods

def attributes(self): Field

        Returns a dictionary of attributes to be used when serializing to xml.
        
    def attributes(self):
        """
        Returns a dictionary of attributes to be used when serializing to xml.
        """
        if self.type_name:
            return {'type': self.type_name}
        return {}

def augment_field(self, field, field_name, key, value): BaseSerializer

    def augment_field(self, field, field_name, key, value):
        # This horrible stuff is to manage serializers rendering to HTML
        field._errors = self._errors.get(key) if self._errors else None
        field._name = field_name
        field._value = self.init_data.get(key) if self._errors and self.init_data else value
        if not field.label:
            field.label = pretty_name(key)
        return field

def delete_object(self, obj): BaseSerializer

    def delete_object(self, obj):
        obj.delete()

def field_from_native(self, data, files, field_name, into):

BaseSerializer

        Override default so that the serializer can be used as a writable
        nested field across relationships.
        
    def field_from_native(self, data, files, field_name, into):
        """
        Override default so that the serializer can be used as a writable
        nested field across relationships.
        """
        if self.read_only:
            return

        try:
            value = data[field_name]
        except KeyError:
            if self.default is not None and not self.partial:
                # Note: partial updates shouldn't set defaults
                value = copy.deepcopy(self.default)
            else:
                if self.required:
                    raise ValidationError(self.error_messages['required'])
                return

        if self.source == '*':
            if value:
                reverted_data = self.restore_fields(value, {})
                if not self._errors:
                    into.update(reverted_data)
        else:
            if value in (None, ''):
                into[(self.source or field_name)] = None
            else:
                # Set the serializer object if it exists
                obj = get_component(self.parent.object, self.source or field_name) if self.parent.object else None

                # If we have a model manager or similar object then we need
                # to iterate through each instance.
                if (self.many and
                    not hasattr(obj, '__iter__') and
                    is_simple_callable(getattr(obj, 'all', None))):
                    obj = obj.all()

                kwargs = {
                    'instance': obj,
                    'data': value,
                    'context': self.context,
                    'partial': self.partial,
                    'many': self.many,
                    'allow_add_remove': self.allow_add_remove
                }
                serializer = self.__class__(**kwargs)

                if serializer.is_valid():
                    into[self.source or field_name] = serializer.object
                else:
                    # Propagate errors up to our parent
                    raise NestedValidationError(serializer.errors)

WritableField

        Given a dictionary and a field name, updates the dictionary `into`,
        with the field and it's deserialized value.
        
    def field_from_native(self, data, files, field_name, into):
        """
        Given a dictionary and a field name, updates the dictionary `into`,
        with the field and it's deserialized value.
        """
        if self.read_only:
            return

        try:
            data = data or {}
            if self.use_files:
                files = files or {}
                try:
                    native = files[field_name]
                except KeyError:
                    native = data[field_name]
            else:
                native = data[field_name]
        except KeyError:
            if self.default is not None and not self.partial:
                # Note: partial updates shouldn't set defaults
                native = self.get_default_value()
            else:
                if self.required:
                    raise ValidationError(self.error_messages['required'])
                return

        value = self.from_native(native)
        if self.source == '*':
            if value:
                into.update(value)
        else:
            self.validate(value)
            self.run_validators(value)
            into[self.source or field_name] = value

Field

        Given a dictionary and a field name, updates the dictionary `into`,
        with the field and it's deserialized value.
        
    def field_from_native(self, data, files, field_name, into):
        """
        Given a dictionary and a field name, updates the dictionary `into`,
        with the field and it's deserialized value.
        """
        return

def field_to_native(self, obj, field_name):

BaseSerializer

        Override default so that the serializer can be used as a nested field
        across relationships.
        
    def field_to_native(self, obj, field_name):
        """
        Override default so that the serializer can be used as a nested field
        across relationships.
        """
        if self.write_only:
            return None

        if self.source == '*':
            return self.to_native(obj)

        # Get the raw field value
        try:
            source = self.source or field_name
            value = obj

            for component in source.split('.'):
                if value is None:
                    break
                value = get_component(value, component)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            return None

        if is_simple_callable(getattr(value, 'all', None)):
            return [self.to_native(item) for item in value.all()]

        if value is None:
            return None

        if self.many is not None:
            many = self.many
        else:
            many = hasattr(value, '__iter__') and not isinstance(value, (Page, dict, six.text_type))

        if many:
            return [self.to_native(item) for item in value]
        return self.to_native(value)

WritableField

    def field_to_native(self, obj, field_name):
        if self.write_only:
            return None
        return super(WritableField, self).field_to_native(obj, field_name)

Field

        Given and object and a field name, returns the value that should be
        serialized for that field.
        
    def field_to_native(self, obj, field_name):
        """
        Given and object and a field name, returns the value that should be
        serialized for that field.
        """
        if obj is None:
            return self.empty

        if self.source == '*':
            return self.to_native(obj)

        source = self.source or field_name
        value = obj

        for component in source.split('.'):
            value = get_component(value, component)
            if value is None:
                break

        return self.to_native(value)

def from_native(self, data, files):

ModelSerializer

        Override the default method to also include model field validation.
        
    def from_native(self, data, files):
        """
        Override the default method to also include model field validation.
        """
        instance = super(ModelSerializer, self).from_native(data, files)
        if not self._errors:
            return self.full_clean(instance)

BaseSerializer

        Deserialize primitives -> objects.
        
    def from_native(self, data, files=None):
        """
        Deserialize primitives -> objects.
        """
        self._errors = {}

        if data is not None or files is not None:
            attrs = self.restore_fields(data, files)
            if attrs is not None:
                attrs = self.perform_validation(attrs)
        else:
            self._errors['non_field_errors'] = ['No input provided']

        if not self._errors:
            return self.restore_object(attrs, instance=getattr(self, 'object', None))

WritableField

        Reverts a simple representation back to the field's value.
        
    def from_native(self, value):
        """
        Reverts a simple representation back to the field's value.
        """
        return value

def full_clean(self, instance): ModelSerializer

        Perform Django's full_clean, and populate the `errors` dictionary
        if any validation errors occur.

        Note that we don't perform this inside the `.restore_object()` method,
        so that subclasses can override `.restore_object()`, and still get
        the full_clean validation checking.
        
    def full_clean(self, instance):
        """
        Perform Django's full_clean, and populate the `errors` dictionary
        if any validation errors occur.

        Note that we don't perform this inside the `.restore_object()` method,
        so that subclasses can override `.restore_object()`, and still get
        the full_clean validation checking.
        """
        try:
            instance.full_clean(exclude=self.get_validation_exclusions(instance))
        except ValidationError as err:
            self._errors = err.message_dict
            return None
        return instance

def get_default_fields(self):

ModelSerializer

        Return all the fields that should be serialized for the model.
        
    def get_default_fields(self):
        """
        Return all the fields that should be serialized for the model.
        """

        cls = self.opts.model
        assert cls is not None, \
                "Serializer class '%s' is missing 'model' Meta option" % self.__class__.__name__
        opts = get_concrete_model(cls)._meta
        ret = SortedDict()
        nested = bool(self.opts.depth)

        # Deal with adding the primary key field
        pk_field = opts.pk
        while pk_field.rel and pk_field.rel.parent_link:
            # If model is a child via multitable inheritance, use parent's pk
            pk_field = pk_field.rel.to._meta.pk

        field = self.get_pk_field(pk_field)
        if field:
            ret[pk_field.name] = field

        # Deal with forward relationships
        forward_rels = [field for field in opts.fields if field.serialize]
        forward_rels += [field for field in opts.many_to_many if field.serialize]

        for model_field in forward_rels:
            has_through_model = False

            if model_field.rel:
                to_many = isinstance(model_field,
                                     models.fields.related.ManyToManyField)
                related_model = _resolve_model(model_field.rel.to)

                if to_many and not model_field.rel.through._meta.auto_created:
                    has_through_model = True

            if model_field.rel and nested:
                if len(inspect.getargspec(self.get_nested_field).args) == 2:
                    warnings.warn(
                        'The `get_nested_field(model_field)` call signature '
                        'is due to be deprecated. '
                        'Use `get_nested_field(model_field, related_model, '
                        'to_many) instead',
                        PendingDeprecationWarning
                    )
                    field = self.get_nested_field(model_field)
                else:
                    field = self.get_nested_field(model_field, related_model, to_many)
            elif model_field.rel:
                if len(inspect.getargspec(self.get_nested_field).args) == 3:
                    warnings.warn(
                        'The `get_related_field(model_field, to_many)` call '
                        'signature is due to be deprecated. '
                        'Use `get_related_field(model_field, related_model, '
                        'to_many) instead',
                        PendingDeprecationWarning
                    )
                    field = self.get_related_field(model_field, to_many=to_many)
                else:
                    field = self.get_related_field(model_field, related_model, to_many)
            else:
                field = self.get_field(model_field)

            if field:
                if has_through_model:
                    field.read_only = True

                ret[model_field.name] = field

        # Deal with reverse relationships
        if not self.opts.fields:
            reverse_rels = []
        else:
            # Reverse relationships are only included if they are explicitly
            # present in the `fields` option on the serializer
            reverse_rels = opts.get_all_related_objects()
            reverse_rels += opts.get_all_related_many_to_many_objects()

        for relation in reverse_rels:
            accessor_name = relation.get_accessor_name()
            if not self.opts.fields or accessor_name not in self.opts.fields:
                continue
            related_model = relation.model
            to_many = relation.field.rel.multiple
            has_through_model = False
            is_m2m = isinstance(relation.field,
                                models.fields.related.ManyToManyField)

            if (is_m2m and
                hasattr(relation.field.rel, 'through') and
                not relation.field.rel.through._meta.auto_created):
                has_through_model = True

            if nested:
                field = self.get_nested_field(None, related_model, to_many)
            else:
                field = self.get_related_field(None, related_model, to_many)

            if field:
                if has_through_model:
                    field.read_only = True

                ret[accessor_name] = field

        # Ensure that 'read_only_fields' is an iterable
        assert isinstance(self.opts.read_only_fields, (list, tuple)), '`read_only_fields` must be a list or tuple'

        # Add the `read_only` flag to any fields that have been specified
        # in the `read_only_fields` option
        for field_name in self.opts.read_only_fields:
            assert field_name not in self.base_fields.keys(), (
                "field '%s' on serializer '%s' specified in "
                "`read_only_fields`, but also added "
                "as an explicit field.  Remove it from `read_only_fields`." %
                (field_name, self.__class__.__name__))
            assert field_name in ret, (
                "Non-existant field '%s' specified in `read_only_fields` "
                "on serializer '%s'." %
                (field_name, self.__class__.__name__))
            ret[field_name].read_only = True

        # Ensure that 'write_only_fields' is an iterable
        assert isinstance(self.opts.write_only_fields, (list, tuple)), '`write_only_fields` must be a list or tuple'

        for field_name in self.opts.write_only_fields:
            assert field_name not in self.base_fields.keys(), (
                "field '%s' on serializer '%s' specified in "
                "`write_only_fields`, but also added "
                "as an explicit field.  Remove it from `write_only_fields`." %
                (field_name, self.__class__.__name__))
            assert field_name in ret, (
                "Non-existant field '%s' specified in `write_only_fields` "
                "on serializer '%s'." %
                (field_name, self.__class__.__name__))
            ret[field_name].write_only = True

        return ret

BaseSerializer

        Return the complete set of default fields for the object, as a dict.
        
    def get_default_fields(self):
        """
        Return the complete set of default fields for the object, as a dict.
        """
        return {}

def get_default_value(self): WritableField

    def get_default_value(self):
        if is_simple_callable(self.default):
            return self.default()
        return self.default

def get_field(self, model_field): ModelSerializer

        Creates a default instance of a basic non-relational field.
        
    def get_field(self, model_field):
        """
        Creates a default instance of a basic non-relational field.
        """
        kwargs = {}

        if model_field.null or model_field.blank:
            kwargs['required'] = False

        if isinstance(model_field, models.AutoField) or not model_field.editable:
            kwargs['read_only'] = True

        if model_field.has_default():
            kwargs['default'] = model_field.get_default()

        if issubclass(model_field.__class__, models.TextField):
            kwargs['widget'] = widgets.Textarea

        if model_field.verbose_name is not None:
            kwargs['label'] = model_field.verbose_name

        if model_field.help_text is not None:
            kwargs['help_text'] = model_field.help_text

        # TODO: TypedChoiceField?
        if model_field.flatchoices:  # This ModelField contains choices
            kwargs['choices'] = model_field.flatchoices
            if model_field.null:
                kwargs['empty'] = None
            return ChoiceField(**kwargs)

        # put this below the ChoiceField because min_value isn't a valid initializer
        if issubclass(model_field.__class__, models.PositiveIntegerField) or\
                issubclass(model_field.__class__, models.PositiveSmallIntegerField):
            kwargs['min_value'] = 0

        attribute_dict = {
            models.CharField: ['max_length'],
            models.CommaSeparatedIntegerField: ['max_length'],
            models.DecimalField: ['max_digits', 'decimal_places'],
            models.EmailField: ['max_length'],
            models.FileField: ['max_length'],
            models.ImageField: ['max_length'],
            models.SlugField: ['max_length'],
            models.URLField: ['max_length'],
        }

        if model_field.__class__ in attribute_dict:
            attributes = attribute_dict[model_field.__class__]
            for attribute in attributes:
                kwargs.update({attribute: getattr(model_field, attribute)})

        try:
            return self.field_mapping[model_field.__class__](**kwargs)
        except KeyError:
            return ModelField(model_field=model_field, **kwargs)

def get_field_key(self, field_name): BaseSerializer

        Return the key that should be used for a given field.
        
    def get_field_key(self, field_name):
        """
        Return the key that should be used for a given field.
        """
        return field_name

def get_fields(self): BaseSerializer

        Returns the complete set of fields for the object as a dict.

        This will be the set of any explicitly declared fields,
        plus the set of fields returned by get_default_fields().
        
    def get_fields(self):
        """
        Returns the complete set of fields for the object as a dict.

        This will be the set of any explicitly declared fields,
        plus the set of fields returned by get_default_fields().
        """
        ret = SortedDict()

        # Get the explicitly declared fields
        base_fields = copy.deepcopy(self.base_fields)
        for key, field in base_fields.items():
            ret[key] = field

        # Add in the default fields
        default_fields = self.get_default_fields()
        for key, val in default_fields.items():
            if key not in ret:
                ret[key] = val

        # If 'fields' is specified, use those fields, in that order.
        if self.opts.fields:
            assert isinstance(self.opts.fields, (list, tuple)), '`fields` must be a list or tuple'
            new = SortedDict()
            for key in self.opts.fields:
                new[key] = ret[key]
            ret = new

        # Remove anything in 'exclude'
        if self.opts.exclude:
            assert isinstance(self.opts.exclude, (list, tuple)), '`exclude` must be a list or tuple'
            for key in self.opts.exclude:
                ret.pop(key, None)

        for key, field in ret.items():
            field.initialize(parent=self, field_name=key)

        return ret

def get_identity(self, data): BaseSerializer

        This hook is required for bulk update.
        It is used to determine the canonical identity of a given object.

        Note that the data has not been validated at this point, so we need
        to make sure that we catch any cases of incorrect datatypes being
        passed to this method.
        
    def get_identity(self, data):
        """
        This hook is required for bulk update.
        It is used to determine the canonical identity of a given object.

        Note that the data has not been validated at this point, so we need
        to make sure that we catch any cases of incorrect datatypes being
        passed to this method.
        """
        try:
            return data.get('id', None)
        except AttributeError:
            return None

def get_nested_field(self, model_field, related_model, to_many): ModelSerializer

        Creates a default instance of a nested relational field.

        Note that model_field will be `None` for reverse relationships.
        
    def get_nested_field(self, model_field, related_model, to_many):
        """
        Creates a default instance of a nested relational field.

        Note that model_field will be `None` for reverse relationships.
        """
        class NestedModelSerializer(ModelSerializer):
            class Meta:
                model = related_model
                depth = self.opts.depth - 1

        return NestedModelSerializer(many=to_many)

def get_pk_field(self, model_field): ModelSerializer

        Returns a default instance of the pk field.
        
    def get_pk_field(self, model_field):
        """
        Returns a default instance of the pk field.
        """
        return self.get_field(model_field)

def get_related_field(self, model_field, related_model, to_many): ModelSerializer

def get_validation_exclusions(self, instance=None): ModelSerializer

        Return a list of field names to exclude from model validation.
        
    def get_validation_exclusions(self, instance=None):
        """
        Return a list of field names to exclude from model validation.
        """
        cls = self.opts.model
        opts = get_concrete_model(cls)._meta
        exclusions = [field.name for field in opts.fields + opts.many_to_many]

        for field_name, field in self.fields.items():
            field_name = field.source or field_name
            if field_name in exclusions \
                and not field.read_only \
                and (field.required or hasattr(instance, field_name)) \
                and not isinstance(field, Serializer):
                exclusions.remove(field_name)
        return exclusions

def initialize(self, parent, field_name): Field

        Called to set up a field prior to field_to_native or field_from_native.

        parent - The parent serializer.
        field_name - The name of the field being initialized.
        
    def initialize(self, parent, field_name):
        """
        Called to set up a field prior to field_to_native or field_from_native.

        parent - The parent serializer.
        field_name - The name of the field being initialized.
        """
        self.parent = parent
        self.root = parent.root or parent
        self.context = self.root.context
        self.partial = self.root.partial
        if self.partial:
            self.required = False

def is_valid(self): BaseSerializer

    def is_valid(self):
        return not self.errors

def label_tag(self): Field

    def label_tag(self):
        return '<label for="%s">%s:</label>' % (self._name, self.label)

def metadata(self):

BaseSerializer

        Return a dictionary of metadata about the fields on the serializer.
        Useful for things like responding to OPTIONS requests, or generating
        API schemas for auto-documentation.
        
    def metadata(self):
        """
        Return a dictionary of metadata about the fields on the serializer.
        Useful for things like responding to OPTIONS requests, or generating
        API schemas for auto-documentation.
        """
        return SortedDict(
            [(field_name, field.metadata())
            for field_name, field in six.iteritems(self.fields)]
        )

Field

    def metadata(self):
        metadata = SortedDict()
        metadata['type'] = self.type_label
        metadata['required'] = getattr(self, 'required', False)
        optional_attrs = ['read_only', 'label', 'help_text',
                          'min_length', 'max_length']
        for attr in optional_attrs:
            value = getattr(self, attr, None)
            if value is not None and value != '':
                metadata[attr] = force_text(value, strings_only=True)
        return metadata

def perform_validation(self, attrs): BaseSerializer

        Run `validate_()` and `validate()` methods on the serializer
        
    def perform_validation(self, attrs):
        """
        Run `validate_<fieldname>()` and `validate()` methods on the serializer
        """
        for field_name, field in self.fields.items():
            if field_name in self._errors:
                continue

            source = field.source or field_name
            if self.partial and source not in attrs:
                continue
            try:
                validate_method = getattr(self, 'validate_%s' % field_name, None)
                if validate_method:
                    attrs = validate_method(attrs, source)
            except ValidationError as err:
                self._errors[field_name] = self._errors.get(field_name, []) + list(err.messages)

        # If there are already errors, we don't run .validate() because
        # field-validation failed and thus `attrs` may not be complete.
        # which in turn can cause inconsistent validation errors.
        if not self._errors:
            try:
                attrs = self.validate(attrs)
            except ValidationError as err:
                if hasattr(err, 'message_dict'):
                    for field_name, error_messages in err.message_dict.items():
                        self._errors[field_name] = self._errors.get(field_name, []) + list(error_messages)
                elif hasattr(err, 'messages'):
                    self._errors['non_field_errors'] = err.messages

        return attrs

def restore_fields(self, data, files): BaseSerializer

        Core of deserialization, together with `restore_object`.
        Converts a dictionary of data into a dictionary of deserialized fields.
        
    def restore_fields(self, data, files):
        """
        Core of deserialization, together with `restore_object`.
        Converts a dictionary of data into a dictionary of deserialized fields.
        """
        reverted_data = {}

        if data is not None and not isinstance(data, dict):
            self._errors['non_field_errors'] = ['Invalid data']
            return None

        for field_name, field in self.fields.items():
            field.initialize(parent=self, field_name=field_name)
            try:
                field.field_from_native(data, files, field_name, reverted_data)
            except ValidationError as err:
                self._errors[field_name] = list(err.messages)

        return reverted_data

def restore_object(self, attrs, instance=None):

ModelSerializer

        Restore the model instance.
        
    def restore_object(self, attrs, instance=None):
        """
        Restore the model instance.
        """
        m2m_data = {}
        related_data = {}
        nested_forward_relations = {}
        meta = self.opts.model._meta

        # Reverse fk or one-to-one relations
        for (obj, model) in meta.get_all_related_objects_with_model():
            field_name = obj.get_accessor_name()
            if field_name in attrs:
                related_data[field_name] = attrs.pop(field_name)

        # Reverse m2m relations
        for (obj, model) in meta.get_all_related_m2m_objects_with_model():
            field_name = obj.get_accessor_name()
            if field_name in attrs:
                m2m_data[field_name] = attrs.pop(field_name)

        # Forward m2m relations
        for field in meta.many_to_many + meta.virtual_fields:
            if isinstance(field, GenericForeignKey):
                continue
            if field.name in attrs:
                m2m_data[field.name] = attrs.pop(field.name)

        # Nested forward relations - These need to be marked so we can save
        # them before saving the parent model instance.
        for field_name in attrs.keys():
            if isinstance(self.fields.get(field_name, None), Serializer):
                nested_forward_relations[field_name] = attrs[field_name]

        # Create an empty instance of the model
        if instance is None:
            instance = self.opts.model()

        for key, val in attrs.items():
            try:
                setattr(instance, key, val)
            except ValueError:
                self._errors[key] = self.error_messages['required']

        # Any relations that cannot be set until we've
        # saved the model get hidden away on these
        # private attributes, so we can deal with them
        # at the point of save.
        instance._related_data = related_data
        instance._m2m_data = m2m_data
        instance._nested_forward_relations = nested_forward_relations

        return instance

BaseSerializer

        Deserialize a dictionary of attributes into an object instance.
        You should override this method to control how deserialized objects
        are instantiated.
        
    def restore_object(self, attrs, instance=None):
        """
        Deserialize a dictionary of attributes into an object instance.
        You should override this method to control how deserialized objects
        are instantiated.
        """
        if instance is not None:
            instance.update(attrs)
            return instance
        return attrs

def run_validators(self, value): WritableField

    def run_validators(self, value):
        if value in validators.EMPTY_VALUES:
            return
        errors = []
        for v in self.validators:
            try:
                v(value)
            except ValidationError as e:
                if hasattr(e, 'code') and e.code in self.error_messages:
                    message = self.error_messages[e.code]
                    if e.params:
                        message = message % e.params
                    errors.append(message)
                else:
                    errors.extend(e.messages)
        if errors:
            raise ValidationError(errors)

def save(self, **kwargs): BaseSerializer

        Save the deserialized object and return it.
        
    def save(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Save the deserialized object and return it.
        """
        # Clear cached _data, which may be invalidated by `save()`
        self._data = None

        if isinstance(self.object, list):
            [self.save_object(item, **kwargs) for item in self.object]

            if self.object._deleted:
                [self.delete_object(item) for item in self.object._deleted]
        else:
            self.save_object(self.object, **kwargs)

        return self.object

def save_object(self, obj, **kwargs):

ModelSerializer

        Save the deserialized object.
        
    def save_object(self, obj, **kwargs):
        """
        Save the deserialized object.
        """
        if getattr(obj, '_nested_forward_relations', None):
            # Nested relationships need to be saved before we can save the
            # parent instance.
            for field_name, sub_object in obj._nested_forward_relations.items():
                if sub_object:
                    self.save_object(sub_object)
                setattr(obj, field_name, sub_object)

        obj.save(**kwargs)

        if getattr(obj, '_m2m_data', None):
            for accessor_name, object_list in obj._m2m_data.items():
                setattr(obj, accessor_name, object_list)
            del(obj._m2m_data)

        if getattr(obj, '_related_data', None):
            related_fields = dict([
                (field.get_accessor_name(), field)
                for field, model
                in obj._meta.get_all_related_objects_with_model()
            ])
            for accessor_name, related in obj._related_data.items():
                if isinstance(related, RelationsList):
                    # Nested reverse fk relationship
                    for related_item in related:
                        fk_field = related_fields[accessor_name].field.name
                        setattr(related_item, fk_field, obj)
                        self.save_object(related_item)

                    # Delete any removed objects
                    if related._deleted:
                        [self.delete_object(item) for item in related._deleted]

                elif isinstance(related, models.Model):
                    # Nested reverse one-one relationship
                    fk_field = obj._meta.get_field_by_name(accessor_name)[0].field.name
                    setattr(related, fk_field, obj)
                    self.save_object(related)
                else:
                    # Reverse FK or reverse one-one
                    setattr(obj, accessor_name, related)
            del(obj._related_data)

BaseSerializer

    def save_object(self, obj, **kwargs):
        obj.save(**kwargs)

def to_native(self, obj):

BaseSerializer

        Serialize objects -> primitives.
        
    def to_native(self, obj):
        """
        Serialize objects -> primitives.
        """
        ret = self._dict_class()
        ret.fields = self._dict_class()

        for field_name, field in self.fields.items():
            if field.read_only and obj is None:
                continue
            field.initialize(parent=self, field_name=field_name)
            key = self.get_field_key(field_name)
            value = field.field_to_native(obj, field_name)
            method = getattr(self, 'transform_%s' % field_name, None)
            if callable(method):
                value = method(obj, value)
            if not getattr(field, 'write_only', False):
                ret[key] = value
            ret.fields[key] = self.augment_field(field, field_name, key, value)

        return ret

Field

        Converts the field's value into it's simple representation.
        
    def to_native(self, value):
        """
        Converts the field's value into it's simple representation.
        """
        if is_simple_callable(value):
            value = value()

        if is_protected_type(value):
            return value
        elif (is_non_str_iterable(value) and
              not isinstance(value, (dict, six.string_types))):
            return [self.to_native(item) for item in value]
        elif isinstance(value, dict):
            # Make sure we preserve field ordering, if it exists
            ret = SortedDict()
            for key, val in value.items():
                ret[key] = self.to_native(val)
            return ret
        return force_text(value)

def validate(self, attrs):

BaseSerializer

        Stub method, to be overridden in Serializer subclasses
        
    def validate(self, attrs):
        """
        Stub method, to be overridden in Serializer subclasses
        """
        return attrs

WritableField

    def validate(self, value):
        if value in validators.EMPTY_VALUES and self.required:
            raise ValidationError(self.error_messages['required'])

def widget_html(self): Field

    def widget_html(self):
        if not self.widget:
            return ''

        attrs = {}
        if 'id' not in self.widget.attrs:
            attrs['id'] = self._name

        return self.widget.render(self._name, self._value, attrs=attrs)